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  • In the olfactory bulb expression was

    2023-09-15

    In the olfactory bulb, expression was especially prominent in the mitral cell layer from embryonic stages to adult tissues (Figs. 1D–G). By E14–E16, Ack1 signal was remarkably intense in the proliferative ventricular zone (Fig. 1D). From E18 to adult, expression was also observed in glomerular and granular neurons, in addition to the above mentioned mitral layer (Figs. 1E–G). In the neocortex, Ack1 mRNA was detected from E12 in the preplate (Fig. 1H) and from E14–E16 in the cortical plate and subplate (Fig. 1I and J); this expression increased by P0 (Fig. 1K) and in adult stages, with strongest expression in layer V (Fig. 1L). The strongest expression was found in the piriform cortex and cingular-retrospinal cortex; however, labeling in all areas, such as frontal, parietal, and temporal zones of the neocortex was also observed. In the hippocampus, expression was strong in the primordial hippocampus at E14 (Fig. 1A and M). At E16, labeling was observed in the progenitor Olomoucine of the dentate gyrus (Fig. 1N). By E18, Ack1 mRNA was present in the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cell layer (Fig. 1B). At postnatal stages, expression was already very intense, especially in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1 and interneurons located parallel to the hippocampal fissure and in the Mossy cells of hilus (Fig. 1C, and Fig. 1O–S). The expression in the dentate gyrus and CA1 lowered slightly by P21 and adult along with an increased labeling in CA3 (Fig. 1Q). Interestingly, the adult dentate gyrus is strongly labeled in the subgranular pool of precursors (Fig. 1S). Other areas of the forebrain, such as the amygdala and basal ganglia, also showed Ack1 expression. In the former, expression was strongest in late embryonic and early postnatal stages, decreasing slightly in late postnatal and adult samples. The septum zone was also labeled at all ages, but more intense in the lateral than in the medial septum. The striatum showed a moderate expression in caudate–putamen nuclei and globus pallidus (Table 1). In the diencephalon, strong expression was detected in the dorsal hypothalamus and ventral thalamus at postnatal stages P0 and P15 (Figs. 2C and D), although expression was already detected at E14 and E16 (Figs. 2A and B). In the thalamus, expression was detected in all nuclei, especially after P5 in the dorso-lateral thalamus and in the dorsal area of the lateral geniculate nuclei (Fig. 2D) as well as in the thalamic reticular nuclei and the anterior and posterior ventral nuclei, especially after P30 and adult (Table 1). In the hypothalamus, Ack1 mRNA expression was strongest in the lateral zone (Fig. 2C and D). The periventricular nuclei presented strong labeling in embryonic stages, which was decreased in postnatal specimens (Table 1). The epithalamus showed maximum labeling in the subcommisural organ at E12, E14, and E16 (Table 1) but this expression decreased with development. In postnatal stages, labeling was slight in epithalamus, habenula (Fig. 2C and D) and subcommisural organ. The rostral migratory pathway showed high levels of Ack1 mRNA expression at E12 and E14 at the ganglionic eminence (Figs. 1A and 2 E). This expression decreased by E16, and by E18 the highest levels of expression were detected in the subventricular zone, decreasing at P0 and showing similar levels at postnatal stages (Fig. 2F–I and Table 1). From P0, expression was already detected in the rostral migratory neurons and continued in postnatal stages (Fig. 2G and K, and Table 1). The subventricular zone that will originate tangential migrating neurons to the olfactory bulb (Fig. 2J and K) showed strong labeling for Ack1 in all stages analyzed (Table 1). In the mesencephalon, expression in the colliculi was observed from E18, although it was not as intense as in other areas of the brain. In addition, the grey periaqueductal area showed strong expression (Fig. 3B) In the hindbrain, expression was already detected at E14/E16 in the rhombic lip (Fig. 3A, J and Table 1) that would originate the external granular layer of the cerebellum by tangential migration. At E18/P0, expression was observed in migrating external granular cells and in migrating Purkinje cells (Fig. 3B). By P5, expression was detected in the external granular cell layer (EGL) and internal granular cell layer (IGL). Following development, at P10/P15, Ack1 mRNA expression in Purkinje cells was considerable; this expression remained strong up to adult (Fig. 3C–E). In P21 and adult, granule cells also showed high levels of Ack1 mRNA (Fig. 3E). Other areas of the hindbrain with strong expression in embryonic tissues were the facial and cochlear nuclei (Fig. 3F), the spinal trigeminal nuclei (Fig. 3G), the vestibular nuclei (Figs. 3G, H, and J), solitary nuclei and vagus nuclei (Figs. 3H and K) and nuclei of the dorsal and medial rafe, as well as olivary nuclei (Table 1). At postnatal stages areas with strong expression of Ack1 were the spinal trigeminal nuclei (Figs. 3L and M), facial (Fig. 3I), and cuneatus, solitary, and hypoglossal nuclei (Fig. 3L)