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  • br Conflicts of interest br Funding br Introduction Brassica

    2023-09-18


    Conflicts of interest
    Funding
    Introduction Brassicaceae is an economically important family of plants containing rapeseed, cabbage, broccoli, brussels, radish and mustard. Among them rapeseed plays a crucial role, because of its application in food and also in fuel industry. According to the USDA report (January 2015) (United States Department of Agriculture, 2015), rapeseed is the second largest oilseed crop worldwide (production of 71.94mln MT) and the third largest source of vegetable oil. Additionally, the post-extraction protein meal is widely used as a source of proteins for animal feed (production of 40.02mln MT). Plant aminopeptidases take part in many crucial physiological processes such as protein turnover, maturation and degradation. It has been proven that they are involved in processes of 4E1RCat turnover, germination, aging, plant defense, stress response and meiosis (Walling, 2006). Several information concerning aminopeptidases isolated from important oilseed crops have been published. Aminopeptidase isolated from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.) (Tishinov, Stambolieva, Petrova, Galunsky, & Nedkov, 2009) was a 80kDa, monomeric enzyme, with broad substrate specificity, and preference for hydrophobic, bulky side chains (e.g. phenylalanine – the most preferred substrate). The enzyme was also active in hydrolysis of 4-nitroanilides of other l-amino acids such as Ala, Val, Ile, Leu. It is interesting that Pro-pNA was also cleaved by that enzyme. Substrates with positively charged side chains of amino acids were not hydrolysed. The aminopeptidase showed optimum activity within the pH range of 7.5–8.0 and at the temperature of 45–50°C. The other aminopeptidase, isolated from expanded soybean cotyledons, was a 85kDa monomer, with high affinity for hydrophobic terminal amino acids. Increased activity was observed during seedlings growth (Couton, Sarath, & Wagner, 1991). Peanut cotyledons were also screened for aminopeptidase activity. Five aminopeptidases were identified (Isola & Franzoni, 1996). Among them, one was an iminopeptidase with only Pro-pNA activity, while other revealed broad activities toward many amino acids p-nitroanilides. High aminopeptidase activity was observed in resting seeds, with decreasing tendency after imbibition. The molecular mass of the aminopeptidase active toward Leu-pNA (APa) was in the range of 55–60kDa. Leucine aminopeptidase was also identified in cotyledons of germinating peanuts (Basha & Cherry, 1978). Several plants of Brassicaceae family (cabbage, brussels, kohlrabi, broccoli, cauliflower and chinese cabbage) were screened for aminopeptidase and iminopeptidase activities (Marinova and Tchorbanov, 2008, Marinova et al., 2008). The molecular mass of studied enzymes was similar for all studied plants: aminopeptidases ∼60±3kDa and iminopeptidases 200±3kDa. The pH optimum of 7.2–7.5 for aminopeptidases and of 8.0–8.5 for iminopeptidases was determined. Aminopeptidases predominantly hydrolyzed phenylalanine- and leucine-4-nitroanilides, with little or no activity toward alanine-4-nitroanilide. Proline iminopeptidase hydrolysed only proline-4-nitroanilide. Both peptidases were successfully applied in the production of soy protein hydrolysates, and high degree of hydrolysis (36–38%) was obtained (Marinova, Thi Kim Cun, Tchorbanov, 2008). There are only few information about rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) aminopeptidases in the literature. Alanine specific aminopeptidase, with the highest activity toward l-alanine-4-(phenylazo)-phenylamide, was isolated from germinated rapeseed (Barth and Hermann, 1974, Hermann et al., 1979). l-leucine, glycine- and l-lysine derivatives were also hydrolyzed. The molecular weight was estimated for 79kDa and the pH optimum for 8.0–8.5. Addition of metal ions such as Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+,Co2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ (Hermann & Barth, 1976) decreased the activity of the enzyme.
    Experimental
    Results and discussion