summarizes FAAH inhibition data for
summarizes FAAH inhibition data for a series of 4-[2-benzofuran]2-yl-pyrimidines substituted with a pyrrolidine, piperidine or homopiperidine bearing a methyl-ketobenzimidazole unit. As indicated, the 3-(keto-benzimidazole-3-yl)piperidine displayed potent inhibition of hFAAH and moderate inhibition of the rat enzyme. However, the pyrrolidine , the 4-(ketobenz-imidazole-3-yl) piperidine and the homopiperidine were significantly less potent. The potency of could be improved upon by replacing the −1 methyl group with an ethyl group (cf. and ). Further improvement in potency is seen through replacement of the ketobenzimidazole with the nitrogen bearing imidazo[4,5-]pyridin-2(3H)-one in . Examination of each enantiomer of revealed that only the () isomer inhibited human and rat FAAH. With in hand we set out to re-examine the SAR of the aliphatic binding pocket by further modifying the piperidine N-substituent. Representative syntheses of our FAAH inhibitors are shown in . 2-Chloro-4-[2-benzofuran]2-yl-pyrimidine is available from the cross-coupling of 2,4-dichloropyrimidine and benzofuran-2-yl-boronic acid. The ()-1-(piperidin-3-yl)-1H-benzoimidazol-2(3H)-one subunit was prepared by the SAr reaction of 2-chloronitrobenzene and commercially available ()-3-amino-1-Boc-piperidine which gave . Reduction of followed by treatment with 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and alkylation of the ketobenzimidazole nitrogen gave . Removal of the Boc protecting group provided . Finally, coupling of and in the presence of Hünig’s Ramiprilat gave the -isomer of . Alternatively, SAr reaction of with dichloro-heterocycles gave . Cross-coupling of with aryl-boronic acids afforded – and allowed us to rapidly explore the SAR of the aryl-pyrimidine fragment. Additional SAR and whole cell assay data for this series of FAAH inhibitors is summarized in . Moving the benzofuran subunit from the 4-position to the 5-position on the pyrimidine ring () resulted in a complete loss of potency against rat and human FAAH. In contrast, both alternate pyrimidine isomers ( and ) were well tolerated as long as a 1,3-relationship between the piperidine and benzofuran units was maintained. Finally, we examined the SAR of the aryl ring attached to the central pyrimidine (compounds –, ). Replacement of the benzofuran subunit with a simple phenyl ring (cf. compounds and ) resulted in a significant loss of potency against both the rat and human enzymes. In general, substituents in either the or position were unable to restore inhibitory activity, particularly on the rat enzyme. On the other hand, small substituents were generally well tolerated with fluorine being preferred (cf. compounds to – and –). Finally, changing the benzofuran subunit to a 5-chloro-2-thiophene resulted in a significant improvement in potency when combined with aza-ketobenzimidazoles (cf. , to and , ). Gratifyingly, compounds and showed inhibition of rat and human FAAH in both biochemical and whole cell assays with potencies comparable to that observed with benchmark FAAH inhibitors. While our compounds were originally envisioned as electrophiles for S241 of FAAH, we were skeptical that the ketobenzimidazole identified in these studies was sufficiently reactive to be attacked by S241. Thus, we set out to determine the mechanism of inhibition for these FAAH inhibitors in greater detail. First, we examined the reversibility of FAAH inhibition through evaluation of progress curves. In the experiment, rFAAH and a test compound were incubated at a concentration 100 fold greater than the usual assay conditions. After 1h, the mixtures were diluted by a factor of 100 with buffer containing anandamidoaminomethylcumarin (AAMCA). The FAAH dependant hydrolysis of AAMCA was then monitored by UV. Under these conditions compounds , , and were shown to be reversible inhibitors of FAAH while URB-597 was shown to inhibit the enzyme irreversibly, as expected.